Specific articles (Articles 10-30)


The articles in this section address a variety of specific human rights, and discuss how those rights should be understood and applied in the
disability context so that persons with disabilities can fully enjoy their human rights.

Article 10 (Right to life) – reaffirms the inherent right to life of every human being, and requires States Parties to “take all necessary
measures to ensure its effective enjoyment by persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.”

Article 11 (Situations of risk and humanitarian emergencies) – requires States Parties to comply with their obligations under
international humanitarian law and international human rights law, and take all necessary measures “to ensure the protection and safety of persons with
disabilities in situations of risk, including situations of armed conflict, humanitarian emergencies and the occurrence of natural disasters.”

Article 12(Equal recognition before the law) – reaffirms that persons with disabilities “have the right to recognition everywhere as
persons before the law.” It obligates States Parties to recognize that persons with disabilities “enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all
aspects of life,” and to take appropriate measures to provide access to “support they may require in exercising their legal capacity.” The Article also
requires that measures relating to the exercise of legal capacity provide for “appropriate and effective safeguards to prevent abuse,” and that they comply
with additional standards set forth in the Article. Article 12 also requires States Parties to take all appropriate and effective measures to ensure the
equal right of persons with disabilities to (amongst other things) own or inherit property, control their own financial affairs, and not be arbitrarily
deprived of their property.

Article 13(Access to justice) – obligates States Parties to ensure “effective access to justice for persons with disabilities on an
equal basis with others ….in all legal proceedings, including at investigative and other preliminary stages.” States Parties must do this through the
provision of accommodations and also training of, e.g. police and prison staff.

Article 14(Liberty and security of the person) – obligates States Parties to ensure that persons with disabilities enjoy the right to
liberty and security of person on an equal basis with others, and that persons with disabilities are not deprived of their liberty unlawfully, arbitrarily,
or on the basis of the existence of a disability. Any deprivation of liberty of persons with disabilities must be in conformity with the law and with
international human rights law, and must be in compliance with the objectives and principles of the Convention including through provision of reasonable
accommodation.

Article 15(Freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment) – reaffirms that “no one shall be subjected to
torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,” and that no one shall be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation without
their free consent. States Parties must take all effective measures to ensure that persons with disabilities are not subjected to torture or cruel, inhuman
or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 16(Freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse) – requires States Parties to take all measures to protect persons with
disabilities “from all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse, including their gender-based aspects.” The Article details some of the measures States
Parties must take, including provision of information and education, and effective monitoring of facilities and programmes serving persons with
disabilities. Where persons with disabilities have become victims, States Parties must take all appropriate measures to promote recovery, rehabilitation
and social reintegration of victims, in an environment that “fosters the health, welfare, self-respect, dignity and autonomy of the person and takes into
account gender- and age-specific needs.”

Article 17(Protecting the integrity of the person) –It states, “every person with disabilities has a right to respect for his or her
physical and mental integrity on an equal basis with others.”

Article 18(Liberty of movement and nationality) – obligates States Parties to recognize the rights of persons with disabilities on an
equal basis with others to liberty of movement, to freedom to choose their residence, and to a nationality. The Article then elaborates some of the ways in
which States Parties must do this and highlights some of the specific rights of children with disabilities, e.g. to be registered immediately after birth
and to have a name.

Article 19(Living independently and being included in the community) – requires States Parties to recognize “the equal right of all
persons with disabilities to live in the community, with choices equal to others.” States Parties must take effective and appropriate measures to
facilitate the enjoyment of this right and the full inclusion and participation in the community of persons with disabilities. These measures include,
amongst others, ensuring that persons with disabilities have access to a range of support services, and that they are “not obliged to live in a particular
living arrangement.”

Article 20 (Personal mobility) – obligates States Parties to take effective measures to ensure “personal mobility with the greatest possible
independence for persons with disabilities.” States Parties must, amongst other things, facilitate access to quality mobility aids, provide training in
mobility skills, and encourage producers of mobility aids, devices and assistive technologies, to “take into account all aspects of mobility for persons
with disabilities.”

Article 21(Freedom of expression and opinion, and access to information) – States Parties must take all appropriate measures to ensure
that persons with disabilities can exercise the right to freedom of expression and opinion on an equal basis with others and “through all forms of
communication of their choice.” Measures identified include, amongst others, the provision of information to the general public in accessible formats and
technologies; urging private entities and the mass media to provide information and services in accessible formats; and “recognizing and promoting the use
of sign languages.”

Article 22 (Respect for privacy) – reaffirms the right of persons with disabilities not to be subject to “arbitrary or unlawful interferences with
his or her privacy, family home or correspondence or other types of communication or to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.” States
Parties must also protect the “privacy of personal, health and rehabilitation information” of persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.

Article 23(Respect for the home and the family) – requires States Parties to take effective and appropriate measures “to eliminate
discrimination against persons with disabilities in all matters relating to marriage, family, parenthood and relationships, on an equal basis with others.”
The Article then addresses some of the different aspects of the right that need to be ensured, such as ensuring that no child is separated from his or her
parents on the basis of the disability of either the child or one or both of the parents.

Article 24 (Education) – States Parties must recognize the right of persons with disabilities to education, without discrimination and on the
basis of equal opportunity. States Parties “ensure an inclusive education system at all levels and life long learning.” The remainder of the Article
addresses how States Parties must do this, including through, amongst other things, provision of reasonable accommodation, and ensuring that persons with
disabilities are not excluded from education on the basis of disability.

Article 25(Health) – obligates States Parties to recognize the right of persons with disabilities to the highest attainable standard of
health without discrimination on the basis of disability. States Parties must take all appropriate measures to ensure access to gender-sensitive health
services, including health-related rehabilitation, and these services must be available as close as possible to people’s communities, including in rural
areas. The remainder of the Article elaborates further on these issues, including, amongst other things, provision of the same range, quality, and standard
of free or affordable health care and programmes as those available to others (including in the area of sexual and reproductive health), free and informed
consent of persons with disabilities to health care on an equal basis with others, and prohibition of discrimination in the provision of health insurance.

Article 26(Habilitation and rehabilitation) – States Parties must “organize, strengthen and extend comprehensive habilitation and
rehabilitation services and programmes, particularly in the areas of health, employment, education and social services.” This must be done to enable
persons with disabilities to “attain and maintain maximum independence, full physical, mental, social and vocational ability, and full inclusion and
participation in all aspects of life.” States Parties must do this through, amongst other things, training of professionals and staff, and ensuring
services and programmes are available as close as possible to people’s communities, including in rural areas.

Article 27(Work and employment) – obligates States Parties to recognize the right of persons with disabilities to work, on an equal
basis with others, including the “right to the opportunity to gain a living by work freely chosen or accepted in a labour market and work environment that
is open, inclusive and accessible to persons with disabilities.” States Parties must safeguard and promote the realization of this right through, amongst
other things, prohibition of discrimination, provision of reasonable accommodation, and promotion of employment of persons with disabilities. States
Parties must also ensure that “persons with disabilities are not held in slavery or servitude, and are protected, on an equal basis with others, from
forced or compulsory labour.”

Article 28(Adequate standard of living and social protection) – obligates States Parties to recognize the right of persons with
disabilities “to an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous
improvement of living conditions.” States Parties must take steps to “safeguard and promote the realization of this right without discrimination on the
basis of disability.” The Article addresses the steps to be taken, including, (amongst others) ensuring equal access to clean water services, access to
social protection programmes, access to public housing programmes and poverty reduction programmes.

Article 29(Participation in political and public life) – obligates States Parties to guarantee to persons with disabilities “political
rights and the opportunity to enjoy them on an equal basis with others.” States Parties must, amongst other things, ensure the right and opportunity of
persons with disabilities to vote by secret ballot and be elected to public office; ensure accessibility of voting procedures, facilities and materials;
and encourage the participation of persons with disabilities in public affairs.

Article 30(Participation in cultural life, recreation, leisure and sport) – obligates States Parties to recognize the right of persons
with disabilities to “take part on an equal basis with others in cultural life.” States Parties must take all appropriate measures to ensure enjoyment of
this right, including, amongst others, providing access to television and cultural materials in accessible formats; providing access to places for cultural
performances or services; and recognizing the specific cultural and linguistic identity of persons with disabilities. States Parties must also enable
participation of persons with disabilities, on an equal basis with others “in recreational, leisure and sporting activities,” and must take appropriate
measures to ensure this. Such measures include, amongst others, providing access to sporting, recreational and tourism venues.